Switches operate at Layer 2 Data Link Layer
Forward / Filter decision using MAC address
Breakup collision domains
Switches create separate collision domains but a single broadcast domain
Hub operates at Layer 1 Physical Layer
Hub creates single collision domain and single broadcast domain
Make forwarding to all the ports when signal is arrived
PING – Packet Internet Gopher
A utility that verifies connections to one or more remote hosts. The ping command uses the ICMP echo request and echo reply packets to determine whether a particular IP system on a network is functional. Ping is useful for diagnosing IP network or router failures.
VLAN – Virtual Local Area Network
Vlan is a logical grouping or segmenting a network connected to administratively defined ports on a switch, they provide Broadcast control, Security and Flexibility.
Used in IP Networks to break up larger networks into smaller subnetworks. It is used to reduce network traffic, Optimized network performance, and simplify management i.e. to identify and isolate network problems.
Communication is the process of sending and receiving data by means of a data cable that is connected externally.
Transmission means the transfer of data from the source to the destination.