Sending a message to a group multicast address is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing.
ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol
It is a Network Layer Internet protocol, which can report errors and status information. We can use the ping command to send ICMP echo request messages and record the receipt of ICMP echo reply messages. With these messages, we can detect network or host communication failures and troubleshoot common TCP/IP connectivity problems.
ARP – Address Resolution Protocol
The protocol that traces IP addresses to MAC addresses.
RARP – Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
The protocol within the TCP/IP stack that maps MAC addresses to IP addresses.
TFTP – Trivial File Transfer Protocol
A stripped down version of FTP, easy to use and fast. TFTP has no Directory browsing, no Authentication and insecure it can only send and receive files.
FTP – File Transfer Protocol
The TCP/IP protocol used for transmitting files between network nodes. FTP allows access to both Directories and files, manipulating directories, typing file contents and copying files between hosts.
In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network, there can be no more than five network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated.