Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs. The various addressing modes that are defined in a given instruction set architecture define how machine language instructions in that architecture identify the operand (or operands) of each instruction. An addressing mode specifies how to calculate the effective memory address of an operand by using information held in registers and/or constants contained within a machine instruction or elsewhere.
The two's complement of a binary number is defined as the value obtained by subtracting the number from a large power of two (specifically, from 2N for an N-bit two's complement). The two's complement of the number then behaves like the negative of the original number in most arithmetic, and it can coexist with positive numbers in a natural way. A two's-complement system or two's-complement arithmetic is a system in which negative numbers are represented by the two's complement of the absolute value; this system is the most common method of representing signed integers on computers. In such a system, a number is negated (converted from positive to negative or vice versa) by computing its two's complement. An N-bit two's-complement numeral system can represent every integer in the range −2N−1 to +2N−1−1.
Hardware Interrupt: Each CPU has External Interrupt lines. Other external devices line keyboard, Mouse, Other controllers can send signals to CPU asynchronously. Software Interrupt:is an interrupt generated with in a processor by executing an instruction . Software interrupt are often used to implemented system calls because they implemented a subroutine call with a CPU ring level change.
Bus contention occurs when more than one memory module attempts to access the bus simultaneously. It can be reduced by using hierarchical bus architecture.
In computing, aliasing describes a situation in which a data location in memory can be accessed through different symbolic names in the program. Thus, modifying the data through one name implicitly modifies the values associated to all aliased names, which may not be expected by the programmer. As a result, aliasing makes it particularly difficult to understand, analyze and optimize programs. Aliasing analyses intend to make and compute useful information for understanding aliasing in programs. Aliasing (computing)