Via define() directive, like define ("MYCONSTANT", 100);
When users clicks the submit button, files specified in the <INPUT TYPE=FILE...> will be transferred from the browser to the Web server. This transferring (uploading) process is controlled by a properly written <FORM...> tag as:
<FORM ACTION=receiving.php METHOD=post ENCTYPE=multipart/form-data>
Note that you must specify METHOD as "post" and ENCTYPE as "multipart/form-data" in order for the uploading process to work. The following PHP code, called logo_upload.php, shows you a complete FORM tag for file uploading:
." method=post enctype=multipart/form-data>n");
print("Please submit an image file a Web site logo for"
print("<input type=file name=globalguideline_logo><br>n");
require_once() and include_once() are both the functions to include and evaluate the specified file only once. If the specified file is included previous to the present call occurrence, it will not be done again.
But require() and include() will do it as many times they are asked to do.
The include_once() statement includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script. This is a behavior similar to the include() statement, with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included, it will not be included again. The major difference between include() and require() is that in failure include() produces a warning message whereas require() produces a fatal errors.
All three are used to an include file into the current page.
If the file is not present, require(), calls a fatal error, while in include() does not.
The include_once() statement includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script. This is a behavior similar to the include() statement, with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included, it will not be included again. It des not call a fatal error if file not exists. require_once() does the same as include_once(), but it calls a fatal error if file not exists.
File will not be included more than once. If we want to include a file once only and further calling of the file will be ignored.
urlencode() returns the URL encoded version of the given string. URL coding converts special characters into % signs followed by two hex digits. For example: urlencode("10.00%") will return "10%2E00%25". URL encoded strings are safe to be used as part of URLs.
urldecode() returns the URL decoded version of the given string.
string urlencode(str) - Returns the URL encoded version of the input string. String values to be used in URL query string need to be URL encoded. In the URL encoded version:
Alphanumeric characters are maintained as is.
Space characters are converted to "+" characters.
Other non-alphanumeric characters are converted "%" followed by two hex digits representing the converted character.
string urldecode(str) - Returns the original string of the input URL encoded string.
$url = "http://domain.com/submit.php?disc=".urlencode($discount);
You will get "http://domain.com/submit.php?disc=10%2E00%25".
Once the Web server received the uploaded file, it will call the PHP script specified in the form action attribute to process them. This receiving PHP script can get the uploaded file information through the predefined array called $_FILES. Uploaded file information is organized in $_FILES as a two-dimensional array as:
* $_FILES[$fieldName]['name'] - The Original file name on the browser system.
* $_FILES[$fieldName]['type'] - The file type determined by the browser.
* $_FILES[$fieldName]['size'] - The Number of bytes of the file content.
* $_FILES[$fieldName]['tmp_name'] - The temporary filename of the file in which the uploaded file was stored on the server.
* $_FILES[$fieldName]['error'] - The error code associated with this file upload.
The $fieldName is the name used in the <INPUT TYPE=FILE, NAME=fieldName>.