To establish a connection, TCP uses a 3-way handshake. Before a client attempts to connect with a server, the server must first bind to a port to open it up for connections: this is called a passive open. Once the passive open is established then a client may initiate an active open. To establish a connection, the 3-way (or 3-step) handshake occurs:
The active open is performed by sending a SYN to the server.
In response, the server replies with a SYN-ACK.
Finally the client sends an ACK back to the server.
At this point, both the client and server have received an acknowledgement of the connection.
when we want to connect to server for communication we need to establish a connection between server and client. The procedure used for this is called 3-way handshake...this is described as follows
1. Initillay the server is ready to accept the incoming connection by binding to local port. This is called passive open.
2. The client now can connect to server by sending SYN J segment to server. The server responds with SYN J+1 and ACK K
3. At the end the client sends ACK K+1 to server..
At this stage we say that client and server are connected
We may assign more then one IP in windows networking as an secondary IP by defining manual network settings and in CISCO and other modren networking devices also it is possible to define secondary IP. Kindly read IOS help to do so.
DNS stands for domain name server
it is used for resolved the IP ADDRESS to domain name or vice versa
A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities. MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate-to-high data rates. A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations.
MAN-Metropolitan Area Network......
Many lans are connected to form a MAN.If a lan runs for a few kms(may be within an organization) a MAN can run upto many kms and even can cover a city...the most common example of MAN is LOCAL CABLE NETWORK......
if there are more than one way for reaching a particular router from the same source router.
1.If TTL(time to live)field become zero.
3.if any fragment is lost.