NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) Protocol allows applications on separate computers to communicate over a LAN. It runs over TCP/IP giving each computer in the network a NetBIOS name and IP address. E.g. It can be used for computers running Windows 2000 (or before) to join a computer network running Windows 2000 (or later).
Internet Group Management Protocol, allows internet hosts to multicast. i.e. to send messages to a group of computers. There may be a group of internet hosts interested to multicast. IGMP allows router to determine which host groups have members on a given network segment. It helps to establish group memberships. It is commonly used for streamlining videos and gaming. The protocol can be implemented both as a host side and router side. The host side is responsible to notify its membership in a group. The notification is made to a local router. This local router (router side) in turn sends out queries.
Point to Point protocol helps communication between 2 computers over a serial cable, phone line or other fiber optic lines. E.g. Connection between an Internet Service Provider and a host. PPP also provides authentication. PPP operates by sending Request packets and waiting for Acknowledge packets that accept, reject or try to change the request.
The protocol is also used to negotiate on network address or compression options between the nodes. PPP has a number of phases as below:
* Link dead: - takes place when the connection fails.
* Link Establishment Phase: - Used to establish connection. If authentication is desired, it moves to next phase.
* Authentication Phase: - Allows the nodes to authenticate each other.
* Network-Layer Protocol Phase: - here, the network control protocols come into play. Data transport, closing of the protocols takes place in this phase.
* Link Termination Phase: - here, the connection is terminated.
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol: - It is a family of protocols used for communication and connection between hosts on the internet. It is the most widely used standard for transmitting data over the internet. The four layers in the protocol are (from bottom to top):- Physical layer, Data link layer, Network layer, transport layer and application layer, also called as the OSI model. In TCP/IP , IP is responsible for forwarding packets while TCP ensures the correct delivery of data from client to server. TCP detects loss of data as well.
FTP is File Transfer Protocol. It used to exchange files on the internet. To enable the data transfer FTP uses TCP/IP, FTP is most commonly used to upload and download files from the internet. FTP can be invoked from the command prompt or some graphical user interface. FTP also allows to update (delete, rename, move, and copy) files at a server. It uses a reserved port no 21.