Java is one of the small number of languages that support at the language level for the creation and management of threads. However, because threads are managed by the java virtual machine (JVM), not by a user-level library or kernel, it is difficult to classify Java threads as either user- or kernel-level.
A situation, where several processes access and manipulate the same data concurrently and the outcome of the execution depends on the particular order in which the access takes place, is called race condition. To guard against the race condition we need to ensure that only one process at a time can be manipulating
the same data. The technique we use for this is called process synchronization.
Critical section is the code segment of a process in which the process may be changing common variables, updating tables, writing a file and so on. Only one process is allowed to go into critical section at any given time (mutually exclusive).The critical section problem is to design a protocol that the processes can use to
co-operate. The three basic requirements of critical section are:
1. Mutual exclusion
3. bounded waiting
Bakery algorithm is one of the solutions to CS problem.
It is a synchronization tool used to solve complex critical section problems. A semaphore is an integer variable that, apart from initialization, is accessed only through two standard atomic operations: Wait and Signal.
Here we assume that a pool consists of n buffers, each capable of holding one item. The semaphore provides mutual exclusion for accesses to the buffer pool and is initialized to the value 1.The empty and full semaphores count the number of empty and full buffers, respectively. Empty is initialized to n, and full is initialized to 0.